Thermodynamics is a branch of engineering that deals with energy in all its forms and the laws governing the transformation of energy from one form to another.
Energy is available in the form of Mechanical, Thermal, Chemical Electrical, etc. Thermodynamics covers a very broad field and is a base for many branches of engineering and Technology.
Thermodynamics applies to a wide variety of topics in science and engineering, especially mechanical engineering.
To increase the efficiency of an early steam engine, Thermodynamics Branch is developed by French physicist Nicolas Leonard Sadi Carnot.
Actually, this is a branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.
What is Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics deals with the behavior of gases and vapors when subjected to variations of temperature and pressures and the relationship between heat energy and mechanical energy, commonly referred to as WORK.
These days energy is in high demand due to rapid industrialization and transportation all over the world. It is, therefore, necessary to design and operate Thermal Plants and Machines at their highest level of performance and for efficient utilization of fuels and natural resources available.
It is important for all concerned engineers who are in the field of Power Generation Machinery should have a working knowledge of all matters dealing with the conversion of heat energy into power.
In designing a Boiler, Gas Turbine, Air Compressor, Steam Turbine, Internal Combustion Engine, Steam Engine, Refrigerating Machine, etc. the Laws of Thermodynamics are very useful.
When a substance undergoes a change from one condition to another, in a process, energy transformation may occur. A common process is those of heating or cooling and expansion or compression in the cylinder with or without production or supply of mechanical work.
Chemical reaction and/or change of phase may occur in some processes involving the liberation of heat.
Basic terms used in Thermodynamics
Working Substance or Medium
Any Thermodynamic Process or change involves the use of a working substance, which has the ability to receive, store and reject energy as required by the particular process.
This medium may be in any one of the physical states such as solid, liquid-vapor, or gaseous. For example, in Steam Power Plant, water vapors are used as a Thermodynamic Medium whereas, in Ice Plant, Ammonia or Freon is used as a working substance.
In the Internal Combustion Engine and Gas Turbine, a mixture of air and fuel forms the working medium in the initial process and products of combustion in the remaining processes.
A Thermodynamic System is a specific portion of matter, with a definite boundary on which our attention is focused.
The system boundary may be real, imaginary, fixed, or deformable. Everything outside the system which has a direct bearing on its behavior is known as surroundings.
There are three main types of systems.
A) Isolated System
In this system, both energy and mass cannot exchange with their surroundings.
B) Closed System
In this system, the transfer of energy takes place but the transfer of mass does not take place.
C) Open System
In this system, energy and mass may be transferred between the system and its surroundings.
Process and Cycle
When a system undergoes changes in its state, it is said to have undergone the process. Hence a process is the path joining the succession of states passed through by a system.
A cycle is a process or a combination of processes so conducted that the initial and final states of the system are the same.
There are many more things available to write on such as laws of thermodynamics, energy conversion cycles, application of thermodynamics, etc.
Besides this information, you are suggested to read something more from below engineering books
So, Here you find the Best Engineering Resources for further details
To get the more details about the topic, I further recommended reading
- Engineering Thermodynamic
- Basic & Applied Thermodynamic
- A Textbook of Engineering Thermodynamic
- A Textbook of Thermal Engineering: Mechanical Technology
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