To prevent water from freezing, Anti Freezers are used in an internal combustion engine.
Some heat is generated inside the Cylinder while the Engine is in working condition.
When the engine is cooled by circulating water around Cylinder then the Engine is called the ‘Water Cooled Engine“.
If the Engine is kept idle (without use) for a long time there is a possibility of freezing of water. This mostly happens in winter.
The water may freeze and expands leading to fractures in Water Jackets, Water Circulating Pipe, or Radiator.
To lower the freezing temperature, a certain mixture is added to the water. This mixture is known as “Anti Freezers” in automobile engineering.
To avoid wastage due to Evaporation, its boiling point should be as high as water.
The purpose is to prevent a rigid enclosure from undergoing catastrophic deformation (such as cracking or bursting) due to expansion when water turns to ice.
Commercially, either the additive or the mixture may be referred to as anti-freezers.
So, The important qualities of ideal Anti Freezers are
- Anti Freezers should easily dissolve in water
- It should be reasonably cheap
- Should not deposit any foreign matters in the Water Jackets, Pipes and cause no harmful effects to any part of a cooling system
- No single Anti Freezers satisfy all these requirements.
- The material in common use is Glycerin, Ethylene Glycol, Propylene, Alcohol, and the mixture of Glycerin and Alcohol
- If Alcohol is used, frequent checking with a Hydrometer is required.
- Glycerin, Ethylene, and Propylene Glycol though have a high initial cost, prove cheap in long run, provided proper care is taken against leakage because their mixture does not evaporate
Besides this information, you are suggested to read something more from below engineering books
To get the more details about the topic, I further recommended reading
- Internal Combustion Engines
- Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals
- Engineering Fundamentals of the Internal
- A Textbook of Internal Combustion Engines
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